Sam Harris' Moral Landscape (TED Talk) is one such attempt to use science to derive an object moral system without the need to appeal to a deity.
The cool thing is that it is intuitive, using the minimization of pain and suffering as an axiom and it has the added benefit of being easily proven or even neurologically measured (he's a neurologist).
The original need for deities was to stop the questions and challenges that inevitably came about
Q: why can't I eat lobster, it's delicious?
A: shut up, God said so
Hence, most of the OT laws have been ditched, though the way modern Jews create workarounds is rather amusing.
Now that we have science, there's no need to say "shut up, God said so", we can say, "shut up, and figure it out yourself, here's the study".
It does require everyone to have the same axiom but Harris' approach seems to make a lot of sense.